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LPS (Lipopolysaccharide)

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a component of the Gram-negative bacterial cell wall that induces various immune and inflammatory responses [1].

LPS stimulates phagocytosis and the production of various cytokines by macrophages [2] and proliferation and immunoglobulin secretion in B lymphocytes [3]. The signalling cascade from cell surface Toll-like receptor-4 to transcription factor NF-κ B plays a pivotal role in responses to LPS [4].

[1] Ulevitch, R.J. and Tobias, P. S. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 11, 19-22 (1999).
[2] Zhang, P. et al. Shock 13, 34-40 (2000).
[3] Ogata, H. et al. J. Exp. Med. 192, 23-29 (2000).
[4] Aderem, and Ulevitch, R. J. Nature 406, 782-787 (2000).