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"+" or "-" indicates if the gene sequences have been found (+) or not been found (-) transcribed (T) and/or translated into protein (Pr). Arbitrarily that information is shown on the first line of each gene when the data have been confirmed by several studies.

Functionality is shown between parentheses, (F) and (P), when the accession number refers to rearranged genomic DNA or cDNA and the corresponding germline gene has not yet been isolated.
Functionality is shown between brackets, [F] and [P], when the accession number refers to genomic DNA, but not known as being germline or rearranged.

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IMGT gene name IMGT allele name Fct Serological markers T Pr Positions in the locus IMGT/LIGM-DB reference sequences IMGT/LIGM-DB sequences from the literature
Breed Clone names Exons Accession numbers Positions in the sequence Secondary accession numbers Breed Clone names Accession numbers Positions in the sequence
IGHA IGHA*01 F Brown Swiss (14) CH1 AF109167 [6]
H+CH2 (1) AF109167 [6]
CH3 (including CHS) AF109167 [6]
IGHE IGHE*01 F Brown Swiss bull (11) CH1 U63640 [7]
CH2 U63640 [7]
CH3 U63640 [7]
CH4 (including CHS) U63640 [7]
IGHG1 IGHG1*01 F 8.10 CH1 X16701 [3] M25278
H X16701 [3] M25278
CH2 X16701 [3] M25278
CH3 (including CHS) X16701 [3] M25278
IGHG1*02 F mouse/bovine heterohybridoma (B/MT.4A.17.H5.A5) CH1 X62916 [4] c(s)
H X62916 [4] c(s)
CH2 X62916 [4] c(s)
CH3 (including CHS) X62916 [4] c(s)
IGHG1*03 F Holstein-Friesian cow 2 (3) CH1 S82409 [5] c(s)
H S82409 [5] c(s)
CH2 S82409 [5] c(s)
CH3 (including CHS) S82409 [5] c(s)
IGHG2 IGHG2*01 F (2) g2a (7) 2.26 CH1 M36946 [1] X06703
H M36946 [1] X06703
CH2 M36946 [1] X06703
CH3 (including CHS) M36946 [1] X06703
IGHG2*02 F (2) g2a (7) Brown Swiss bull 32.2.8 (10) CH1 X16702 [3] M25279
H X16702 [3] M25279
CH2 X16702 [3] M25279
CH3 (including CHS) X16702 [3] M25279
IGHG2*03 F (2) g2a (7) Holstein-Friesian cow 3 (4) CH1 S82407 [5] c(s)
H S82407 [5] c(s)
CH2 S82407 [5] c(s)
CH3 (including CHS) S82407 [5] c(s)
IGHG3 IGHG3*01 F German Yellow spotted strain G3a (8,13) CH1 (6) U63638 [8]
H U63638 [8]
CH2 U63638 [8]
CH3 (including CHS) U63638 [8]
IGHG3*02 F Brown Swiss bull (9) G3b (13) CH1 (6) U63639 [8]
H U63639 [8]
CH2 U63639 [8]
CH3 (including CHS) U63639 [8]
IGHGP IGHGP*01 P (5) psi-gamma CH1 M36947 [1]
H M36947 [1]
CH2 M36947 [1]
CH3 (including CHS) M36947 [1]
IGHM IGHM*01 F Brown Swiss bull (12) CH1 U63637 [9]
CH2 U63637 [9]
CH3 U63637 [9]
CH4 (including CHS) U63637 [9]
M1 U63637 [9]
M2 U63637 [9]

c: cDNA sequence.
(s): transcript of a secreted chain.

IMGT notes:
  1. (1) In the IGHA gene, the hinge and CH2 are joined in a single exon.
  2. (2) This sequence was incorrectly designated a pseudogene by Symons et al., 1987 [1] because in their first sequence the nucleotide G at position 907/908 at the start of the CH2 was missing, leading to a frameshift. This sequence has been re-sequenced by Symons et al., 1989 [3] and the nucleotide has been resolved, permitting reclassification of the sequence as a functional gene.
  3. (3) KABAT accession number: KADBID 027168.
  4. (4) KABAT accession number: KADBID 027169.
  5. (5) DELETION of 1 nucleotide in the CH3 leading to a frameshift.
  6. (6) Twenty-two additional amino acids are encoded by the 3' end of CH1. As this region is rich in proline (7 aa out of 22), it is likely to be part of the structural hinge.
  7. (7) The gamma chains are encoded, for their constant region, by the IGHG genes. g2a and g2b refer to polymorphic gamma 2 chains characterized serologically. The g2a and g2b chains were previously designated as IgG2a(A1) and IgG2a(A2) respectively, whereas the gamma 3 chain was designated as IgG2b/IgG3 [5].
  8. (8) Sequence G3a obtained by PCR from the genomic phage clone 46.2 containing the IGHG3 gene, provided by Katherine L. Knight. This phage was isolated from a genomic library constructed with DNA from a Brown Swiss bull [2].
  9. (9) Subcloned from phage clone 46.2 containing the bovine IGHG3 gene, provided by Katherine L. Knight [2].
  10. (10) Subcloned from phage clone 32.2 containing the bovine IGHG2 gene, provided by Katherine L. Knight [2].
  11. (11) Subcloned from phage clone 24 containing the bovine IGHE gene, provided by Katherine L. Knight [2].
  12. (12) Subcloned from phage 15 containing the bovine IGHM gene, provided by Katherine L. Knight [2].
  13. (13) The two alleles IGHG3*01 and IGHG3*02 differ from each other by a 6 amino acid substitution in the coding region and a 84 base pair (bp) insertion in the intron between the CH2 and CH3 exons of IGHG3*01 [8]. This insertion contains a 41 bp duplication.
  14. (14) Subcloned from phage 25 containing the bovine IGHA gene, provided by Katherine L. Knight [2] .
IMGT references:
  1. [1] Symons D.B. et al., J. Immunogenet., 14, 273-283 (1987). PMID: 3141517
  2. [2] Knight K.L. et al., J. Immunol., 140, 3654-3659 (1988). PMID: 3361125
  3. [3] Symons D.B. et al., Mol. Immunol., 26, 841-850 (1989). PMID: 2513487
  4. [4] Jackson T. et al., Mol. Immunol., 29, 667-676 (1992). PMID: 1584233
  5. [5] Kacskovics I. and Butler J.E., Mol. Immunol., 33, 189-195 (1996). PMID: 8649440
  6. [6] Brown W.R. et al., Immunology, 91, 1-6 (1997). PMID: 9203958
  7. [7] Mousavi M. et al., Immunology, 92, 369-373 (1997). PMID: 9486110
  8. [8] Rabbani H. et al., Immunogenetics, 46, 326-331 (1997). PMID: 9218535
  9. [9] Mousavi M. et al., Immunology, 93, 581-588 (1998). PMID: 9659232
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